The Proof For Stephen Hawkings Theory



Are you an astropyhysics fan? If yes then i think you might have come across Stephen Hawking's theories. If you don't know any of these , let me enlighten you on the astroworld. Stephen Hawking  was one of the greatest theoretical physicists of the modern age. Otherwise known for his appearances in popular media and his lifelong battle against a debilitating illness, his true impact on posterity comes from his brilliant five-decade career in science. Beginning with his doctoral thesis in 1966, his groundbreaking work continued nonstop right up until his final paper in 2018, completed just days before his death at the age of 76. Hawking worked at the intellectual cutting edge of physics, and his theories often seemed bizarrely far out at the time he formulated them. Yet they’re slowly being accepted into the scientific mainstream, with new supporting evidence coming in all the time. From his mind-blowing views of black holes to his explanation for the universe’s humble beginnings, here are some of his theories that were vindicated, and others that are still up in the air.

The Big-Bang Theory
Hawking got off to a flying start with his doctoral thesis, written at a critical time when there was a heated debate between two rival cosmological theories: the Big Bang and steady-state. Both theories accepted that the universe is expanding, but in the first it expands from an ultracompact, super-dense state at a finite time in the past, while the second assumes the universe has been expanding forever, with new matter always being created to maintain a constant density. In his thesis, Hawking showed that steady-state theory is mathematically self-contradictory. He argued instead that the universe began as an infinitely small, infinitely dense point called a singularity. Today Hawking's description is almost universally accepted among scientists.
Black Holes Are Real
More than anything else, Hawking’s name is associated with black holes – another kind of singularity, formed when a huge star undergoes complete collapse under its own gravity. These mathematical curiosities arose from Einstein’s theory of general relativity, and they had been debated for decades when Hawking turned his attention to them in the early 1970s. His stroke of genius was to combine Einstein’s equations with those of quantum mechanics, turning what had previously been a theoretical abstraction into something that looked like it might actually exist in the universe. The final proof that Hawking was correct came in 2019, when the Event Horizon Telescope obtained a direct image of the supermassive black hole lurking in the centre of giant galaxy Messier 87.
Hawking Radiation
Black holes got their name because their gravity is so strong that photons – or particles of light – shouldn’t be able to escape from them, rendering them dark. But in his early work on the subject, Hawking argued that the truth is more subtle than this monochrome picture. By applying quantum theory – specifically the idea that pairs of ‘virtual photons’ can spontaneously be created out of nothing – he realised that some of these photons would appear to be radiated from the black hole. Now referred to as Hawking radiation, the theory was recently confirmed in a laboratory experiment at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa. In place of a real black hole, the researchers used an acoustic analogue: a ‘sonic black hole’ from which sound waves cannot escape. They detected the equivalent of Hawking radiation exactly in accordance with the physicist’s predictions.
Black Hole Area Theorem
In classical physics, entropy, or the disorder of a system that can only ever increase with time, never decreases. Together with Jacob Bekenstein, Hawking proposed that the entropy of a black hole is measured by the surface area of its surrounding event horizon. The recent discovery of gravitational waves emitted by merging pairs of black holes shows that Hawking was right again. As Hawking explained to the BBC after the first such event in 2016: “The observed properties of the system are consistent with predictions about black holes that I made in 1970. The area of the final black hole is greater than the sum of the areas of the initial black holes.” More recent observations have provided further confirmation of Hawking’s area theorem.
The Information Paradox
The existence of Hawking radiation creates a serious problem for theoreticians. It seems to be the only process in physics that deletes information from the universe. The basic properties of the material that went into making the black hole appear to be lost forever – the radiation that comes out tells us nothing about them. This is the so-called information paradox that scientists have been trying to solve for decades. Hawking’s own take on the mystery, which was published in 2016, is that the information isn’t truly lost. It’s stored in a cloud of zero-energy particles surrounding the black hole, which he dubbed ‘soft hair’. But Hawking’s hairy black hole theorem is only one of several hypotheses that have been put forward, and to date no one knows the true answer.
Doomsday prophecies
In  his later years, Hawking made a series of bleak prophecies concerning the future of humanity that he may or may not have been totally serious about. These range from the suggestion that the elusive Higgs boson, or ‘God particle’, might trigger a vacuum bubble that would gobble up the universe to hostile alien invasions and artificial intelligence (AI) takeovers. Although Hawking was right about so many things, we’ll just have to hope he was wrong about these.
The Existence Of A Multiverse
One of the topics Hawking tinkered with towards the end of his life was multiverse theory – the idea that our universe, with its beginning in the Big Bang, is just one of an infinite number of coexisting bubble universes. Hawking wasn’t happy with the suggestion made by some scientists that any ludicrous situation you can imagine must be happening right now somewhere in that infinite ensemble.
In his very last paper in 2018, Hawking sought, in his own words, to “try to tame the multiverse”. He proposed a novel mathematical framework that, while not dispensing with the multiverse altogether, rendered it finite rather than infinite. But as with any speculation concerning parallel universes, we have no idea if his ideas are right. And it seems unlikely that scientists will be able to test his idea any time soon.
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